Deep Sky Observing Guides

   In the late '70s, I found inspiration in AstroCards by Kepple and Sanner, which led me to the idea of creating comprehensive observing guides for advanced deep-sky observers. By the early 2000s, I started compiling my all-in-one observing pages for my observing programs. I began with deep sky object catalogues like Hickson Compact Galaxy Groups and Abell Planetary Nebulae. These guides included eyepiece renditions and observing notes for sale.

  Originally, I had planned to release guides for purchase for various deep sky catalogues, but the extensive time required for observing, note-taking, sketching, and guide creation led me to offer the basic guides for FREE to observers. I hope you find these guides useful and enjoyable in the field.

  Over the past decade and a half, I have dedicated my research to identifying fascinating catalogues for observation. While some catalogues offer a significant challenge to observers with 30" or larger telescopes, I have also developed guides tailored to those with smaller to moderate apertures. For instance, individuals who have completed the Messier list can advance to the Herschel 400 list, which is well-suited for observers with telescopes as small as 6". This page contains guides encompassing a wide range of celestial objects, ensuring there is something of interest for every observer.

  The central idea behind the "one-stop shop" concept is to furnish observers with all the necessary information for locating and effectively observing the object through star hopping. Each page contains a naked-eye chart with a Telrad overlay centered on the object, in addition to a finder chart and a DSS image. I continue to use this method in my observing program, which is why I opt not to use DSCs in my 22" reflector - I find it quicker to locate objects through star hopping.

  I regularly make additions, so be sure to check back periodically. Revisions are detailed at the back of each Observing Guide.

Hard Copy Print Editions
  Most of these guides are available through my regular publisher at a nominal cost.  They are provided for convenience as I realize that some of you don't have a laser printer, let alone a duplex printer.  Or just don't want to bother printing the whole book and then taking it to a print shop to have it coil bound.

  I am pleasantly surprised at my publisher's final price as it is less expensive than printing the whole thing at a print shop, color stock covers and then coil binding it.  One observer noted that when he sent the 2013 OOTW to Kinko's and had them print them double-sided in black and white, then bound them with a clear cover on the front and black vinyl on the back.  It cost him about $29! It is about half that from my publisher. Just another way of making them available for a modest cost to all.  Hope that you feel that this option is valuable for you.

  These print books are COIL-BOUND for ease of use at the telescope, especially those with large reflectors with ladders.  They are "at the eyepiece" field guides, NOT armchair books.  :)

  To access them - click here for a listing of available guides or the link next to each book below.


  The best part is I'll still keep my free PDF version here!  Just click on the image to the left of each book to download the PDF.


Feel free to share your thoughts, notes, or comments via email - my contact information is at the bottom.



The Herschel Objects

Observing the Herschel 400 Objects (Part I) - The first group of 400 Herschel objects was generated by the Rose City Astronomy Club in 1980.  This is an excellent list for observers who completed the Messier list.   A 6" telescope is sufficient to see all objects on this list.  (406 pages, 43MB)  Print Version



Observing the Herschel 400 Objects (Part II) - The second group of 400 Herschel objects was generated in 1997.  This is an excellent second part of the overall list of 2,500 Herschel Objects.   A 10" scope is needed to see all objects on this list, but an 8" can see most of them.   (407 pages, 44MB)  Print Version

 Minor update:  AL replaced three objects in the Herschel 400 Part II as of Aug 1, 2020. 


Observing the Herschel Part III Objects - The third group of Herschel objects generated by Tom Hoffelder consists of 300 galaxies.  This is an excellent step for those who completed the Part I and II list.   A 10 or 12" scope is needed to see all objects on this list, but an 8" can see most of them.   (319 pages, 31MB)  Print Version

Observing Projects for large telescopes (16" or larger)

The Vorontsov-Velyaminov Catalogue of Interacting Galaxies  (Part I) - Dr. Boris Vorontsov-Velyaminov of Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow University, created this list of interacting galaxies in 1959.  A majority of the systems were found on the POSS plates from the Palomar 48-inch Schmidt astrograph.   The original Part I list contained 355 systems, many of which are listed by Dr. Halton Arp AFTER Dr. V-V did his list.  Note:  This observing guide will contain only the non-Arp VV objects as the Arp are covered in my publication, “Observing the Arp Peculiar Galaxies”.
Many of these objects require a fairly large telescope (16"+) (199 pages, 56MB)  Print Version

The Vorontsov-Velyaminov Catalogue of Interacting Galaxies  (Part II) – This interactive catalogue consists of 497 objects created in 1976 as Boris continued his work on interactive galaxies.  The list starts with VV 356 and ends with VV852.  

Many of these objects require a fairly large telescope (16"+) (482 pages, 84MB)

 Print Version - Note:  The number of pages exceeds the limit for coil binding as it would not fit even the largest coil.  This print version is available in hardback only.

Variable Galaxies – A selection of 60+ variable galaxies, most are observable with a 20" telescope.  This class of objects includes BL Lacertae, Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), and Optically Violent Variable quasars (OVV). (145 pages, 49MB)    Print Version





The Local Group –Galaxies within our celestial backyard. Some of the Local Group members are close enough that you can see some of their globular clusters, H-II regions, OB associations, and open clusters.  They are clearly marked and offer a great challenge for those with large telescopes.  (84 pages, 46MB)    Print Version

Updated (March 2024): Added new resources based on recent scholarship since the original release of this guide back in 2008. Corrected some mislabeled globular clusters, H II regions, and OB associations.  See Revision History for complete list.


Flat Galaxies - A selection of 170+ Flat Galaxies from the Revised Flat Galaxy Catalogue.  Many are dim and require a large telescope.  I recommend a 16" or larger scope to tackle the majority of objects in this list.  

(201 pages, 74MB)     Print Version



The Rose Catalogue of Compact Galaxies - Dr. James A. Rose wrote a paper discussing a small selection of 33 northern and 5 southern very compact galaxy groups for large telescopes.  This list is considered to be a bit more challenging than the Hickson Galaxy Groups. 

Recommend 18" or larger scope as most are very small and dim.  All objects in this list are visible in the spring months.  (89 pages, 10MB)    Print Version



Abell Galaxy Clusters – In 1958, Dr. George Abell compiled a list using POSS1 plates consisting of 2712 galaxy clusters (limited to -27°  and above).  Later in 1989, Dr. Abell and Harold Corwin added an additional 1361 clusters.  I've selected 80+ Abell Galaxy Clusters for this observing guide for intermediate and advanced observers with large telescopes. 

16” or larger scope is recommended.  (431 pages, 46MB)     Print Version



Challenging Observing Projects for very large telescopes (30" or larger)

Selected Shakhbazian Galaxy Groups – Very challenging compact galaxy groups, much more challenging than the Hickson Compact Galaxy Groups.  Dr. Shakhbazian et al published a list of 377 groups.  60+ brightest groups in this guide.  (142 pages, 61MB)     Print Version

Observing notes for Shakhbazian Groups with telescopes from 22" to 48".  Click here.

Major update (April 2024): 59 Shk groups added, many updates throughout guide.


The Palomar Compact Galaxy Catalogue - A select sampling of 60 of 459 compact groups.   This list was created by Dr. Angela Iovino of Italy, using similar selection criteria as Hickson, Shakhbazian, and Rose in their respective projects.  The criteria are a bit tighter and use an automated algorithm scanning POSS plates > 40 degrees from the galactic equator.  

This list is the ultimate compact galaxy list.  All of them are less than an arc minute.  Think about it, 1 arc minute is 60 arc seconds, meaning that many entire Palomar Compact Galaxy groups would be covered by Jupiter!    (76 pages, 9MB)   Print Version

Observing Projects for smaller telescopes (6” and up)

Selected Small Galaxy Groups – Small Galaxy Groups inspired by the Astronomical League Galaxy Clusters Observing Club with some additional selections.  60+ groups.   8” or larger scope.   (221 pages, 44MB)     Print Version

Major Update (July 2024): Added 31 new small galaxy groups, including more than a few in the southern sky. Grand total of 102 galaxy groups.



Galaxy Trios and Triple Systems – Galaxy Trios inspired by Miles Paul’s list and by the Astronomical League Galaxy Groups Observing Club.  But there are much more than the two original lists, some very challenging for large telescopes such as my 30" reflector.   240+ trios and triple systems.   8” or larger scope. (287 pages, 84MB)  Print Version
This file also contains a selection of the easiest gravitational lensed quasars, such as the Double Quasar in Ursa Major and Einstein’s cross in Pegasus.


Globular Clusters - All globular clusters above -50° declination.  This list includes all Messier, NGC, Palomar, and Terzan globular clusters.  There are a few “impossible” globulars, such as the two 2MASS globulars, FSR 1735, in this list as well.  90+ globulars.

Most are observable with an 8” scope, while a few are challenging in 30" and larger telescopes.  (128 pages, 10MB)   Print Version



Planetary Nebulae and Supernovae Remnants- Planetary nebulae, supernovae remnants, and protoplanetaries that are observable above about -50° declination and north.   About 350+ objects were included.  Many stellar planetary nebulae were left out.  (337 pages, 80MB)    Print Version




Deep Sky Forum Observing Guides

Object of the week 2012 - An observing book/log comprising all of the 2012 'Object of the Week' as posted at Deep Sky Forum.  Members chose and discussed a different object every week.  You'll find a great selection of objects varying in type and difficulty.  Many objects may require at least an 18" telescope and dark skies. (140 pages, 12MB)    Print Version




Object of the week 2013 - An observing book and log comprising all of the 2013 'Object of the Week' plus selected objects from the Off the Beaten Path forum as posted at Deep Sky Forum.  Members chose and discussed a different object every week.  You'll find a great selection of objects varying in type and difficulty.  (246 pages, 28MB)    Print Version




Texas Star Party Advanced Observing Guides

Galaxy Illusions (2013) - A handy observing list for Larry Mitchell's and Jim Chandler's Texas Star Party Advanced Observing List.  Observe BOTH galaxies in at least 20 pairs to qualify for the pin. (42 pages, 4MB)  Print Version






Seeing Red (2014) - Observing Guide for Larry Mitchell's Texas Star Party Advanced Observing List.  Observe at least 20 objects to qualify for the pin. (42 pages, 4MB)  Print Version





Inverting on a computer as demonstrated on my Observing Tips page

In FoxIt, click on Tools\Preferences...  Then click on Documents on the left side.  Under Document Color Options, place a check box on Replace Document Colors.  Click on the Custom Color radio button, change the page background to black and document text to white (or whatever you want).  Click on OK.

If you want to view in full screen with no borders...then click on Full Screen in the same left-hand menu under Tools\Preferences...  remove all check marks except the last one.  Click on OK.

On my small laptop, I rotate the image clockwise (as I hold my laptop with the screen on the left-hand side, you can rotate the other way around if you prefer the screen on the right-hand side.)  Then press F11 for full screen.

Note: Some of these documents are best printed on both sides of the paper to maximize the usefulness on the field as the two-page spreads are built to be used together.  It is best to coil bind the pages.  Any business printing business can do that for you.

For the documents with a two-page spread per object, if you want each object to appear on the same sheet (front and back), add a blank page or delete one of the blank pages at the beginning of the book.


Printing the Guides (two ways)

1. If you have access to a duplex printer, then you’re set.  

2.  If you are using a standard laser printer, then...

  • Print odd pages in reverse order
  • Take the just printed stack and place it in the paper tray facing up and upside down (top of page closest to you).

If you have good observations, feedback, or any other comments on these guides.  Please email

FaintFuzzies.com.  All Rights Reserved.